by tybmmjourno

Millennium development goal: Achieve Universal Primary Education


It’s a country in east Africa. It shares borders       with Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo  Zambia  and  Mozambique. The country is divided into 30 regions: five on the islands of Zanzibar and 25 on the mainland in Tanganyika. Tanzania is one of the 189 nations, which advocated the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in September 2000 as part of the internationally decided upon development goals at the General Assembly of the United Nations. The post is going to be a look at the achievements and progress made by Tanzania in terms of reaching the goal. Millennium development goals, project is a decision made by developed and developing countries to work together to reach a stage in the world when there is less povety, hunger and disease, increased chances of survival for mother and infants, basic education for all children, equal opportunities for women and a healthier environment is support of the Agenda 21 principles of sustainable development. The MDG’s have set time-bound targets for the countries through which the progress can be measured and commitment of all nations be kept in check. There are indicators selected by experts that help to monitor the progress of member countries from 1990 to 2015 – the year or deadline when the targets are supposed to be met.

Goal 2 of the Millennium Development Goals is to ensure that by year 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls both will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling. The indicators for the above goal are as under:

•           Net enrollment ratio in primary education

•           Number of students starting first grade who reach last grade of primary       school

•           Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds, women and men.


Progress made in the net enrollment ratio

In 1990 net enrollment ratio (NER) in primary education was 54.2 for Mainland and 50.9 for Zanzibar. Between 1997 and 1999 NER mean estimate was 57 percent (58 percent for female and 56 percent for male). By year 2000 the rates went up to 57.1 for Mainland Tanzania and to 67 for Zanzibar, and by 2006 to 94.8 percent for Mainland Tanzania and 77 percent for Zanzibar. Recent data shows further improvements in this indicator –83.4 percent in 2007 for Zanzibar a NER of 97.2 percent in 2008 in the Mainland. 

Reasons for progress:

There are certain concrete steps that Tanzania has taken to alleviate the country from the problem:

  • Complete stop on  primary school fees,
  •  enrollment-related contributions from parents
  • the successful implementation of the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP)
  • improved teaching and learning environment 
  • Increased awareness of the negative effects of child labor on child education. Children from poor households in particular have benefited.

There is near gender equality with regard to enrollment of girls and boys at the primary school level. However, primary School retention rates (number of children enrolled in Standard I who complete Standard VII) have dropped from 78 percent in 2006 to 62.5 percent in 2008.

There is still concern about the performance of girls in Standard VII (Primary School Leaving) Examinations. rates indicate that Secondary School enrolment is up with a near gender balance at entry. However, after Form IV the retention of girls drops substantially with a ratio of 2 boys to Transition 1 girl when they reach Form VI.

Adult illiteracy is at a high. literacy rate among age 15+ is 72.5 per cent (80 per cent for men and 66.1 per cent for women). Overall, about 27.5 per cent of Tanzanians cannot read and write in any language. There is more illiteracy among women (34 per cent) than men (20 per cent). The target of eliminating illiteracy by 2015 remains challenging particularly for rural women.

Implementation of the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) has greatly helped Mainland Tanzania be closer to achieving MDG 2. PEDP is being rolled over to 2011. A similar programme exists for Zanzibar. Recruitment of more teachers is being fast tracked, by reduction of years in training and by putting in place accelerated training plans. Poor families have been provided for, by allowing their children to attend school free of charge. Expansion of secondary school infrastructures has resulted in increased intake of Primary School leavers thus adding motivation to staying the full course of primary schooling.

Tanzania progress in primary education is still plagued with problems. Several challenges remain. the quality of education ( high pupil/teacher ratio of 54:1 in 2009) as well as the pass rate at the primary school leaving certificate ( 52.7 percent in 2008). 


  • further construction of schools and classrooms;
  • teacher recruitment through exchange programmes like WORLD TEACH; 
  • Checking drop out.


s. tanuja surendra

ty.bmm journalism

Sophia college